Speech Impairments in Children – Speech Disorders in Children
Speech is defined as the use of the voice to express ideas. It is the same as talking or speaking. Some infants are born with disabilities that interfere with normal speech development. Other children acquire speech disorders after birth.
What is going on in the body?
Speech is not the same as language, though the two are often related. Language is any method of expression or communication, which may or may not be vocal. For example, a child may be unable to talk but still able to use sign language. There are many causes of speech disorders in children.
What are the causes and risks of the condition?
Many factors can contribute to speech disorders in children. Language disorders in children can lead to problems with speaking, writing, and other forms of communication. Physical or birth defects may interfere with the mechanics of speaking. An example would be a cleft palate, which is an abnormal space in the roof of the mouth. This defect interferes with the ability to pronounce certain words. Many children with Down syndrome have trouble producing speech because of physical differences.
Nervous system conditions or damage may affect coordination or speech centers in the brain. Nervous system disorders can result in a wide variety of speech problems, depending on the area of the brain that is affected. For example, damage to a nerve called the hypoglossal nerve can result in clumsiness of the tongue and interfere with pronunciation. Cerebral palsy, a type of brain damage often present at birth, may affect speech and language.
Deafness or hearing impairment can interfere with the child’s ability to learn to speak. Stuttering is a condition without a known cause that often goes away on its own. Selective mutism occurs when a child chooses or pretends not to talk in certain settings. This usually indicates an emotional or psychiatric disturbance in the child. It may be caused by child abuse. Other causes of speech problems are also possible. Sometimes, no cause can be found.
Symptoms & Signs
What are the signs and symptoms of the condition?
A child with a speech disorder may have a variety of symptoms, including the following:
altered pitch or tone of speech
speaking with a lisp
speech only in certain situations
speech problems related to language problems
speech that is indistinct or hard to understand
total inability to speak
Other types of speech problems are also possible.
Diagnosis & Tests
How is the condition diagnosed?
The parents or a teacher often notice the problem first. Diagnosis of the cause starts with a medical history and physical exam. This may be all that is needed to make the diagnosis in some cases. In other cases, further testing may be needed.
For example, a formal hearing test may be done if hearing loss is suspected. One such test is called brain stem evoked-response audiometry, or hearing, or auditory, structures in the brain\ \how well a person hears\’,CAPTION,’Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response Test’);” onmouseout=”return nd();”>BAER. A formal test of language or a test of intelligence, also called an IQ test, may be advised if these are suspected causes. Examples of language tests include the Early Language Milestone Scale and the Clinical Linguistic Assessment Measurement test. A cranial CT scan may be ordered if nervous system damage is suspected. Psychological tests, such as a Rorschach inkblot test, may be ordered if an emotional disturbance is suspected.
Prevention & Expectations
What can be done to prevent the condition?
Most of the time, speech disorders in children cannot be prevented. Measures to avoid child abuse may prevent some speech disorders, such as selective mutism.
What are the long-term effects of the condition?
Children with speech difficulties may have trouble in school or with peers. Most long-term effects are related to the cause. For example, those who stutter often outgrow this condition and have no long-term effects. Some children with cerebral palsy may have severe communication\ \education, including reading, writing, and basic math\ \motor function\ \personal care, such as bathing, dressing, eating, and toileting\ \social skills\ \thinking skills, such as decision making, problem solving, and self-direction\ \working\ ‘,CAPTION,’Mental Retardation’);” onmouseout=”return nd();”>mental retardation and movement problems and need around-the-clock care.
What are the risks to others?
Speech disorders are not contagious and pose no risk to others.
Treatment & Monitoring
What are the treatments for the condition?
Treatment is directed at the cause. Some examples include:
cleft palate repair for children with cleft palate
hearing aids for children with hearing impairments
medicines and counseling for psychiatric problems
removal of child abuse victims from the abusive environment
sign language instruction for children with hearing impairments, as well as for children with delayed speech or language
special classes or learning environments for children with severe impairments
In addition to treatment of the underlying cause, speech therapy can be invaluable in training children to talk.
What are the side effects of the treatments?
Any surgery carries a risk of bleeding, infection, and allergic reaction to anesthesia. Medicines used for psychiatric problems may cause allergic reactions, drowsiness, or stomach upset.
What happens after treatment for the condition?
The child’s quality of life is affected by the speech disorder and the success of treatment. Those with cerebral palsy or Down syndrome may need lifelong therapy and treatment. Those with a cleft palate may be cured by surgery and need no further treatment after recovery. Children who stutter may or may not benefit from treatment.
How is the condition monitored?
Any change in the child’s speech or response to treatment can be reported to the healthcare provider.