Basal Cell Carcinoma Introduction Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans. Basal cell cancer tumors typically appear on sun-exposed skin, are slow growing, and rarely metastasize. Neglected tumors can lead to significant local destruction and even disfigurement. Pathophysiology Although the exact etiology of basal cell carcinoma is unknown, a well-established relationship exists between basal cell carcinoma and the pilosebaceous unit, as tumors are most often discovered on hair-bearing areas. Tumors are currently believed to…
Hepatic Carcinoma, Primary Introduction Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the hepatocyte, generally leading to death within 6-20 months. Hepatocellular carcinoma frequently arises in the setting of cirrhosis, appearing 20-30 years following the initial insult to the liver. However, 25% of patients have no history or risk factors for the development of cirrhosis. The extent of hepatic dysfunction limits treatment options, and as many patients die of liver failure as from tumor progression.
Neoplasms of the Endocrine Pancreas ntroduction Background Neoplasms of the endocrine pancreas can be divided into functional and nonfunctional varieties. Most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms discovered clinically are functional; ie, they secrete one or more hormonal products into the blood, which leads to a recognizable clinical syndrome. In 1927, Wilder et al described the first hormone-producing pancreatic tumor syndrome in a patient with hypoglycemia and a metastatic islet cell tumor, extracts of which caused hypoglycemia.
Thyroid, Anaplastic Carcinoma Introduction Background Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid (ATC) is the most aggressive thyroid gland malignancy. Although ATC accounts for less than 2% of all thyroid cancers, it causes up to 40% of deaths from thyroid cancer. The aggressive nature of ATC makes treatment studies difficult to perform. Pathophysiology