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Category: Sports Medicine

Medial Gastrocnemius Strain ?>

Medial Gastrocnemius Strain

Medial Gastrocnemius Strain Introduction Background A medial calf injury is a musculotendinous disruption of varying degrees in the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle that results from an acute, forceful push-off with the foot.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 This injury occurs commonly in sports activities (eg, hill running, jumping, tennis), but it can occur in any activity. A medial calf injury is often seen in the intermittently active athlete, often referred to as the “weekend warrior.”

Lateral Collateral Knee Ligament Injury ?>

Lateral Collateral Knee Ligament Injury

Lateral Collateral Knee Ligament Injury Introduction Background Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injuries occur from a varus force to the knee (ie, a force directed at the medial side of the knee or leg). These injuries are much less common than medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries because the opposite leg usually guards against direct blows to the medial side of the knee. However, LCL injuries can occur in situations in which trauma occurs as the leg is extended in front of…

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Snapping Hip Syndrome ?>

Snapping Hip Syndrome

Snapping Hip Syndrome Introduction Background Snapping hip syndrome is characterized by an audible snap or click that occurs in or around the hip. This syndrome is well recognized but poorly understood. Snapping hip syndrome may be due to an external cause (eg, snapping of the iliotibial band or gluteus maximus over the greater trochanter) or an internal cause (eg, snapping of the iliopsoas tendon over the iliopectineal eminence, acetabular labral tear, intra-articular loose body). Acetabular labral tears and intra-articular loose…

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Metatarsal Stress Fracture ?>

Metatarsal Stress Fracture

Metatarsal Stress Fracture Introduction Background With an increase in public interest in physical fitness, clinical practitioners are diagnosing stress fractures with greater frequency.1 First described by Aristotle in 200 BC, stress fractures were initially recorded in the medical literature in 1855 by the Prussian military physician Breithaupt, who described what is now known as a march fracture, or stress fracture of the metatarsals.

Achilles Tendon Rupture ?>

Achilles Tendon Rupture

Achilles Tendon Rupture Introduction Background Achilles tendon ruptures commonly occur to otherwise healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. Those who suffer this injury are typically “weekend warriors” who are active intermittently. Most Achilles tendon tears occur in the left leg in the substance of the tendoachilles, approximately 2-6 cm – the ‘;watershed zone” – above the calcaneal insertion of the tendon. That the…

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Otitis Externa ?>

Otitis Externa

Otitis Externa Introduction Background Otitis externa is an inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal and/or auricle.1, 2, 3 This condition is one of the most common medical conditions that affect aquatic athletes. Individuals with allergic conditions, such as eczema, allergic rhinitis, or asthma, also have a significantly higher risk of developing this condition.4, 5 (See also the eMedicine articles Otitis Externa [in the Emergency Medicine section], Otitis Externa and Allergic Rhinitis [in the Pediatrics section], Allergic and Environmental…

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Nasal Fracture ?>

Nasal Fracture

Nasal Fracture Introduction Background Nasal fractures seen in participants of athletic activities occur as a result of direct blows in contact sports and as a result of falls. The nasal bones are the most commonly fractured bony structures of the maxillofacial complex.1, 2, 3, 4, 5 The nasal bone’s protruding position coupled with its relative lack of support predisposes it to fracture. Prompt appropriate treatment prevents functional and cosmetic changes. Because of the nose’s central location and proximity to important…

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Facial Soft Tissue Injuries ?>

Facial Soft Tissue Injuries

Facial Soft Tissue Injuries Introduction Background Facial soft-tissue injuries are not uncommon in athletics.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 The position and anatomy of the face make it particularly vulnerable to trauma. In addition, few sports mandate the use of protective equipment, leaving the face susceptible to injury. Although most such injuries are minor in nature, they should be evaluated promptly with a focused history and thorough examination. In addition, facial injuries should be treated early to reduce the…

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Face and Head ?>

Face and Head

Face and Head Introduction Background Facial fractures occur for a variety of reasons related to sports participation: contact between players (eg, a head, fist, elbow); contact with equipment (eg, balls, pucks, handlebars); or contact with the environment, obstacles, or a playing surface (eg, wrestling mat, gymnastic equipment, goalposts, trees). Although most sports-related facial injuries are minor, the potential for serious damage exists. A physician examining these injuries must rapidly assess the patient in a consistent and methodical manner, allowing for…

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