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Category: Dermatology

What is vitiligo, and what causes it? ?>

What is vitiligo, and what causes it?

What is vitiligo, and what causes it? Vitiligo (vit-ill-EYE-go) is a pigmentation disorder in which melanocytes (the cells that make pigment) in the skin are destroyed. As a result, white patches appear on the skin in different parts of the body. Similar patches also appear on both the mucous membranes (tissues that line the inside of the mouth and nose), and the retina (inner layer of the eyeball). The hair that grows on areas affected by vitiligo sometimes turns white.

Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome ?>

Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome

Introduction Background Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a rare autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by mental retardation, diplegia or tetraplegia, and congenital ichthyosis. The ichthyosis (usually evident at birth) may be seen in some patients after the first year of life. Pathophysiology SLS is due to deficient activity of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH), an enzyme required to oxidize fatty alcohol to fatty acid. It catalyzes the oxidation of medium- and long-chain fatty aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. The gene encoding…

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Sarcoidosis ?>


Sarcoidosis Background Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown cause which can affect any organ of the body taking the form of cells which cluster together in tiny nodules, or sarcoid granulomas. These are clusters of chronic inflammatory cells. Sarcoidosis can develop in almost any organ. Most commonly it attacks the lungs, eyes, skin, more rarely the brain and nervous system. It can also spread to other organs such as the liver, heart and kidneys. The disease can range from…

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Kaposi’s Sarcoma ?>

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Kaposi’s Sarcoma Kaposi’s sarcoma is a specific type of cancer that involves the tissues of the skin or the coverings of blood vessels. What is going on in the body? Kaposi’s sarcoma , or KS, usually begins in certain skin cells. These cells undergo cancerous changes and begin to grow uncontrollably. For people with intact immune systems, the cancer grows slowly, if at all, and rarely spreads. The disease becomes very aggressive if the person has an impaired immune system….

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Systemic Sclerosis ?>

Systemic Sclerosis

Systemic Sclerosis Introduction Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. Characteristics of SSc include essential vasomotor disturbances; fibrosis; subsequent atrophy of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, and internal organs (eg, alimentary tract, lungs, heart, kidney, CNS); and immunologic disturbances accompany these findings.

Cellulitis ?>


Cellulitis Introduction Background Cellulitis is an acute infection of skin and soft tissues characterized by localized pain, swelling, tenderness, erythema, and warmth. The eMedicine Emergency Medicine article Cellulitis and the Medscape CME course Managing the Complicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infection may be of interest. Pathophysiology

Blepharitis ?>


Blepharitis Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelid. It develops at the place where the mucous membrane on the underside of the lid joins the skin on the top of the lid. It occurs in both children and adults. The condition can be chronic and recur. What is going on in the body? The margin of the lid becomes inflamed along the eyelash line. Redness, scaling, and sometimes an infection can develop in the skin between the eyelashes. What are…

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Atopic Eczema – Eczema ?>

Atopic Eczema – Eczema

Atopic Eczema – Eczema Eczema is a skin condition that causes patches of dry, scaly, extremely itchy skin. What is going on in the body? Eczema usually results from a hypersensitivity, or allergy-like sensitivity, causing inflammation. The inflammation causes the skin to become itchy and scaly. Eczema is not a true allergy. Rather, it is a condition in which the skin may react or become sensitive to allergens, which are allergy-causing substances. What are the causes and risks of the…

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Atopic Dermatitis ?>

Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis Introduction Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic disease of unknown origin that usually starts in early infancy (an adult-onset variant is recognized); it is characterized by pruritus, eczematous lesions, xerosis (dry skin), and lichenification (thickening of the skin and an increase in skin markings). AD may be associated with other atopic (immunoglobulin E [IgE]) diseases (eg, asthma, allergic rhinitis, urticaria, acute allergic reactions to foods).1 AD has enormous morbidity, and the incidence and prevalence appear to be…

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