Fibromyalgia Attribution Fibromyalgia is a poorly understood condition that causes multiple tender points, called trigger points, in the muscles and soft tissues of the body. What is going on in the body? People who have fibromyalgia have chronic, widespread pain and stiffness in the muscles. Fatigue is a key factor in fibromyalgia. Some healthcare professionals believe that fatigue may occur because the person doesn’t get enough deep, restful sleep. Others believe that the sleep disturbance may actually be a cause…
Thyroid Nodule Fine Needle Biopsy In a thyroid nodule fine-needle biopsy, a small sample of tissue is taken from the thyroid gland, an endocrine gland in the neck. This sample is then analyzed in the laboratory. Who is a candidate for the test? The thyroid nodule fine-needle biopsy is usually done to help diagnose thyroid cancer or other thyroid disorders. How is the test performed? This test can be done in a doctor’s office or in the hospital. The person…
Thyroid Cancer The thyroid gland produces chemicals that regulate how the body uses energy. Thyroid cancer develops in the tissue of the thyroid gland. It is not very common. Death from thyroid cancer is unusual, especially in young people. Thyroid cancer is found twice as often in women. There are several types of thyroid cancer. Papillary is the most common and has the best outlook for cure. Follicular is less common but is also easy to treat. Medulary is uncommon…
Onychochizia – Brittle Nails Brittle nails are fingernails and toenails that peel and break easily. What is going on in the body? Fingernails and toenails are made up of protein layers. The thickness and strength of the nails is inherited. Separation or breaking of the protein layers can occur in a person with brittle nails. What are the causes and risks of the symptom?
Luteinizing Hormone – LH The LH test is a blood test that measures the amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by the pituitary gland. In men, LH stimulates the production of testosterone by the testes. In women, LH is one of the hormones involved in the monthly release of an egg from the ovaries. Who is a candidate for the test?
Vitamin K Deficiency Introduction Background Vitamin K (VK), an essential, lipid-soluble vitamin that plays a vital role in the production of coagulation proteins, is found in green, leafy vegetables and in oils, such as soybean, cottonseed, canola, and olive oils.1 VK is also synthesized by colonic bacteria. The 3 main types of VK are K-1, which is derived from plants; K-2, menaquinone, which is produced by the intestinal flora; and K-3, which is a synthetic, water-soluble form used for treatment.
Vitamin E Toxicity Introduction Background Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that acts as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger in lipophilic environments. It is consumed by approximately 20% of the US population. Vitamin E requires bile for absorption, and 25% of it is absorbed orally. Storage of the vitamin occurs in adipose tissue, liver, and muscle.
Vitamin E Deficiency Introduction Background Vitamin E, one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrients, is found in nut oils, sunflower seeds, whole grains, wheat germ, and spinach. Severe deficiency, as may occur in persons with abetalipoproteinemia or fat malabsorption, profoundly affects the central nervous system and can cause ataxia and a peripheral neuropathy resembling Friedreich ataxia.1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Patients receiving large doses of vitamin E may experience a halt in the progression of the disease.
Vitamin D Deficiency and Related Disorders Introduction Background Vitamin D deficiency in children can manifest as rickets (it is the most common cause of nutritional rickets), which presents as bowing of the legs. Vitamin D deficiency in adults results in osteomalacia, which presents as a poorly mineralized skeletal matrix. These adults can experience chronic muscle aches and pains.1
Vitamin A Toxicity Introduction Background Vitamin A is an important fat-soluble vitamin. Its basic molecule is a retinol, or vitamin A alcohol. After absorption, retinol is transported via chylomicrons to the liver, where it is either stored as retinol ester or re-exported into the plasma in combination with retinol-binding protein for delivery to tissue sites.