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What Is Atrial Fibrillation? ?>

What Is Atrial Fibrillation?

Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is a heart rhythm abnormality caused by a problem with the heart’s electrical system. Normally, the heart’s electricity flows from the top chambers (atria) to the bottom chambers (ventricles), causing the normal contraction. In atrial fibrillation the electrical flow is chaotic causing the heartbeat to become irregular. Warning Sign: Uneven Pulse Atrial fibrillation causes an irregular heart rate. If you check your pulse, you will often feel a “fluttering.” When atrial fibrillation is new in onset or…

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Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) ?>

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)

This term describes several other types of fast heart rhythms that are not typically dangerous, but can cause symptoms of palpitations, fatigue, or shortness of breath. They typically start suddenly and stop suddenly, and may last for minutes or hours, with a rapid but steady pulse during the episode.

Tricuspid Stenosis ?>

Tricuspid Stenosis

Tricuspid Stenosis Introduction Background Tricuspid valve dysfunction can result from morphological alterations in the valve or from functional aberrations of the myocardium. Tricuspid stenosis is almost always rheumatic in origin and is generally accompanied by mitral and aortic valve involvement.1 

Tricuspid Regurgitation ?>

Tricuspid Regurgitation

Tricuspid Regurgitation Introduction Background Tricuspid regurgitation may result from structural alterations of any one or all of the components of the tricuspid valve apparatus. Components include the leaflets, chordae tendinea, annulus, and papillary muscles or adjacent right ventricular (RV) muscle. The lesion may be classified as primary when it is caused by an intrinsic abnormality of the valve apparatus or as secondary when it is caused by RV dilatation. Pathophysiology

Tricuspid Atresia ?>

Tricuspid Atresia

Tricuspid Atresia Introduction Background Tricuspid atresia is the third most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, with a prevalence of 0.3-3.7% in patients with congenital heart disease. The deformity consists of a complete lack of formation of the tricuspid valve with absence of direct connection between the right atrium and right ventricle. Pathophysiology Three types of tricuspid atresia are described, depending on the associated relationship of the great vessels. In type I, the great arteries are related normally; in…

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Pulmonic Stenosis ?>

Pulmonic Stenosis

Pulmonic Stenosis Introduction Background Pulmonic stenosis (PS) refers to a dynamic or fixed anatomic obstruction to flow from the right ventricle (RV) to the pulmonary arterial vasculature. Although most commonly diagnosed and treated in the pediatric population, individuals with complex congenital heart disease and more severe forms of isolated PS are surviving into adulthood and require ongoing assessment and cardiovascular care. Pathophysiology

Pulmonic Regurgitation ?>

Pulmonic Regurgitation

Pulmonic Regurgitation Introduction Background The pulmonic valve is normally a thin tricuspid structure that prevents blood from regurgitating into the right ventricle once ejected into the low-pressure pulmonary circulation. Pulmonic regurgitation refers to retrograde flow from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during diastole. Physiologic (trace-to-mild) pulmonic regurgitation is present in nearly all individuals, particularly in those with advanced age. However, pathologic conditions that produce excessive and clinically significant regurgitation can result in impairment of right ventricular function and…

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Mitral Valve Prolapse ?>

Mitral Valve Prolapse

Mitral Valve Prolapse Introduction Background Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular abnormality, affecting approximately 2-6% of the population in the United States. MVP usually results in a benign course. However, it occasionally leads to serious complications, including clinically significant mitral regurgitation, infective endocarditis, sudden cardiac death, and cerebrovascular ischemic events. MVP is also the most common cause of isolated mitral regurgitation in the United States, and it is the most common reason for mitral valve surgery. Pathophysiology

Mitral Stenosis ?>

Mitral Stenosis

Mitral Stenosis Introduction Background Mitral stenosis is an obstruction to left ventricular inflow at the mitral valve level due to the structural abnormality of the mitral valve apparatus. Rheumatic fever is a main cause of mitral stenosis. Other uncommon etiologies include congenital mitral stenosis, such as parachute mitral valve; marked mitral annular calcification of the mitral valve; and infective endocarditis with large vegetations (often fungal). Sometimes, conditions such as left atrial myxoma can mimic mitral stenosis by obstructing outflow.

Mitral Regurgitation ?>

Mitral Regurgitation

Mitral Regurgitation Introduction Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) is defined as an abnormal reversal of blood flow from the left ventricle to the left atrium. It is caused by disruption in any part of the mitral valve apparatus, which comprises the mitral annulus, the leaflets (a large anterior [aortic] leaflet and a small posterior [mural] leaflet), the chordae tendineae, and the papillary muscles (anteromedial and posterolateral). The most common etiologies of MR include mitral valve prolapse (MVP), rheumatic heart disease, infective…

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