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Category: Psychiatry

Schizophreniform Disorder ?>

Schizophreniform Disorder

Schizophreniform Disorder Definition and Diagnostic Features Definition Schizophreniform disorder is characterized by the presence of the criterion A symptoms of schizophrenia, including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms. The disorder, including its prodromal, active, and residual phases, lasts longer than 1 month but less than 6 months. Diagnostic features

Schizoaffective Disorder ?>

Schizoaffective Disorder

Schizoaffective Disorder Introduction Background The term schizoaffective disorder was coined by Dr. Jacob Kasanin in 1933. Schizoaffective disorder is a perplexing mental illness distinguished by a combination of symptoms of a thought disorder or other psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions (schizophrenia component) and those of a mood disorder (depressive or manic component). The coupling of symptoms from these divergent spectrums makes treating patients who are schizoaffective difficult.

Psychiatric Illness Associated With Criminality ?>

Psychiatric Illness Associated With Criminality

Psychiatric Illness Associated With Criminality Introduction Like the term insanity, criminality is a legal term and is specifically not a medical or psychiatric term, diagnosis, illness, or syndrome. Webster’s dictionary defines criminality as “the quality or state of being a criminal; criminal activity.” Webster’s further defines a criminal as “relating to, involving, or being a crime; relating to crime or to the prosecution of suspects in a crime; guilty of crime; also: of or befitting a criminal; disgraceful.” In other…

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Primary Insomnia ?>

Primary Insomnia

Primary Insomnia Introduction Background Primary insomnia is sleeplessness that is not attributable to a medical, psychiatric, or environmental cause. The diagnostic criteria for primary insomnia (307.42) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) are as follows:

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ?>

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Introduction Background The formal diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was not introduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders until its third publication in 1980. In earlier DSM editions, this relatively new diagnosis was characterized as stress response syndrome, a type of gross stress reaction, or a situational disorder, and often incorrectly associated with personal weakness instead of situational trauma.  

Phobic Disorders ?>

Phobic Disorders

Phobic Disorders Introduction Background A phobia is defined as an irrational fear that produces a conscious avoidance of the feared subject, activity, or situation. The affected person usually recognizes that the reaction is excessive. Phobic disorders can be divided into 3 types: social phobia, specific phobias, and agoraphobia.

Personality Disorder: Borderline ?>

Personality Disorder: Borderline

Personality Disorder: Borderline Introduction Background Personality traits are enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself. They are exhibited in a wide range of important social and personal contexts. When these traits are significantly maladaptive and cause serious functional impairment or subjective distress, they constitute a personality disorder. The manifestations of personality disorders are often recognized by adolescence and continue throughout most of adult life. Personality disorders are not formally diagnosed in patients younger than…

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Personality Disorder: Avoidant Personality ?>

Personality Disorder: Avoidant Personality

Personality Disorder: Avoidant Personality Introduction Background According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), avoidant personality disorder (APD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation.1 Children who meet the criteria for APD are often described as being extremely shy, inhibited in new situations, and fearful of disapproval and social rejection. The degree of the symptoms and impairment is well beyond the trait of shyness that…

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Personality Disorders ?>

Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders Introduction Background A personality disorder, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment. Personality disorders are a long-standing and maladaptive pattern of perceiving and responding to other…

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Parasomnias ?>


Parasomnias Introduction Background Parasomnias are disorders characterized by undesirable motor, verbal, or experiential phenomenon occurring in association with sleep, specific stages of sleep, or sleep-awake transition phases. Parasomnias may be categorized as (1) primary parasomnias, which are the disorders of sleep states and are further classified according to the sleep state of origin, rapid eye movement (REM), or non–rapid eye movement (NREM) or (2) secondary parasomnias, which are disorders of other organ systems that may manifest during sleep, eg, seizures,…

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